UPDATED May 17,2019 – A Brain injury may be defined as an injury from the brain no matter age at onset. A brain injury can result a substantial handicap to the individual who sustained the brain injury and may trigger numerous types of cognitive impairments like lack of focus, memory or other motor-neurological disorders such as ataxia, ALS, Spinal muscular atrophy or Parkinson’s Disease. A brain injury may also consist of any injury that’s vascular by nature and not traumatic where there was an event that directly caused or instigated the injury.
Modern treatment options for head injuries are usually divided into 2 types, closed head injuries and penetrating head injuries. Overlap for the 2 types does exist and closed head injury treatments can be further segmented into mild, moderate, or severe/traumatic head injuries. A brain injury is dissimilar from a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or stroke because an exterior force injures the brain in a damaging violent manner. TBI is an injury in the brain which is brought about by some type of traumatic influence. TBI can be caused by a blows to the head, cranial penetration or even violent trembling. Depending on the cause and severity of the brain injury, the brain damage can be classified as serious, moderate or mild and damage from neurodegeneration can include, glia cells, neurons, endothelial cells and Axonal Degeneration. (19017556)
Classifications of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI)
A TBI occurs after damage to the brain from external forces such as: Impacts, rapid deceleration or acceleration, blast waves or blunt force trauma. After such an incident, overall brain function can be temporarily or permanently damaged. The focus of this article and treatment options will be for brain damage (head injuries) that occurs after birth only. There are currently two subsets brain damage including traumatic and non-traumatic (non-penetrating) brain injuries resulting from exposure to toxins, brain stroke or viral infections. Most brain injuries are classified as either neurotrauma or central nervous system injuries that can affect cell signalling and neurotransmitters which can lead to other neurodegenerative conditions like dementia.
TBI are classified based on several factors including severity, causative forces, anatomical locations of the injury and the mechanism. Mechanism-related injuries are either considered penetrating head injury or nonpenetrating/blunt/closed injury. An open or penetrating head injury happens when an object goes through the skull and breaches the outermost membrane of the brain known as dura mater.
Traumatic Brain injuries are also classified into 3 categories including: mild, moderate, and severe. The most commonly used system around the world to classify TBI severity is known as The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS scale (3–15) grades a victim based on their level of consciousness which is based on measuring motor,verbal and eye-opening reactions. A brain injury with a GCS of 13 or above is considered mild, a brain injury with a GCS score of 9–12 is considered moderate, and any GCS score below 8 is considered a severe brain injury.
The GCS scale can also be changed after the victim is resuscitated, post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), or after recovering from loss of consciousness (LOC). Other methods of classifying severity of TBI include using neuroimaging scans from CT,MRI or PET to measure brain swelling, diffuse injury or focal lesions. A mild TBI, is also commonly known as a concussion.
Stem Cells to Repair Brain Damage (VDO)
Each region of the human brain and spinal cord possess various types of specialized cells. The Regen Center NeuroCell protocol works through usage of adult stem cells, for specific regions that help in the development of the central nervous system (CNS).
The goal of our Neural cell replacement therapy and spinal cord injuries is to target the damaged areas and then to repair or dead, damaged or diseased progenitor cells that are found in the neurogenic region.
Initial symptoms and signs of the TBI could consist of:
- Blurred vision
- Memory loss
- Loss of consciousness
Focal and Diffuse Brain Injuries
Using a CT scan, TBI lesions can also be classified by their pathological features including extra-axial or intra-axial. Extra-axial lesions refer to injuries that occur outside of the brain but inside the skull while intra-axial lesions refers to injuries that happen inside the brain tissue. Results from these injuries can be diffuse or focal or both depending on the severity of the injury.
Symptoms of Diffuse injuries include edema (brain swelling) and damage to white matter tracts, cerebral hemispheres and axons (diffuse axonal). Focal injuries on the other hand occur mostly in the orbitofrontal cortex and temporal lobes resulting in behavioral changes, problems with decision-making, language difficulties and decision-making skills.
Focal lesions such as Hematomas result in the rapid collections of blood around the brain and can result in an Intracerebral hemorrhage stroke,subdural hematoma (bleeding between arachnoid mater & dura), subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding between arachnoid membrane and the pia mater), epidural hematoma (bleeding into dura matter) or intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding in ventricles).
Treatment Options for Traumatic Brain Injuries
For optimal results early intervention is the key to recovering from brain injuries. Intervention during the first 60 minutes after injury i.e. “golden hour” is recommended.(22336130) For most patients, treatment options depends on the age of injury and/or stage of recovery. Patients in the acute stage are looking to stabilize the condition from progressing using a combination of surgery and physical rehabilitation.
For Acute stages of TBI, maintaining proper blood flow to the brain is critical to avoid brain herniation and seizures. In this stage Decompressive craniectomy (DC) can be used to relive intracranial pressure along with hyperbaric oxygen therapies to ensure proper oxygen supplies are maintained. Neuroimaging from brain scans are also used to better target therapies using analgesics, Sedatives,paralytic agents and sometimes hypertonic saline to reduce swelling, regulate body temperature, hypotension, reduce risk of heart failure or avoid electrolyte imbalances.
Patients with TBI are at a much higher risk of complications and negative side effects requiring contacting monitoring for signs of deterioration or loss of consciousness. Other complications of Traumatic Brain Injuries include pulmonary edema and cardiac arrhythmia. In chronic stages of TBI, Pharmacological based treatments can be used to treat behavioral (psychiatric issues) and post-traumatic epilepsy.
Reverse Damage From Brain Injuries
Brain Stem cells transplantation into the affected region might be beneficial in certain circumstances wherein the damage is not to severe and has occurred relatively recently. (from 6 mo up to two years after initial Injury) The neural stem cell implantation purpose would be to attempt to restore signal functions with comparable properties. In situations of TBI, numerous cell kinds are required (glial, neuronal, vascular, endothelial ) to regenerate the complex functions of largely damaged regions of the brain.(22162635)
Neural Cell Replacement Therapy
In much more severe instances of traumatic brain related injuries such as Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) there are complications that can be fatal. While the rigorousness of the TBI
differ broadly, the consequences of it in the long run are frequently devastating and life-changing. TBI are typically very sudden in nature and early intervention is the key to a full recovery. The physical, non-congenital harm towards the brain by an external force may permanently or temporarily disrupt regular brain function. (25072157) Brain characteristics and functions that may be affected include temporary or permanent loss of consciousness, speech, language, memory, character, mobility, joint pain with lupus, peripheral neuropathy and recognition of other people. Since the brain controls all bodily functions, any harm towards the brain, no matter how little or severe it is, can impair physical and psychological activity.
TREATMENT PRECAUTIONThe Regeneration Center Does Not Accept Patients With Brain and/or Spinal Injuries older than 24 months old. All neurodegenerative disease treatments will also require physical ability to travel to Bangkok for the 2-3 week protocol.
Treatment Options For Brain Injuries
Number of Sessions: Multiple Infusions of MSC+ cells, Neural Progenitor Cells with fibroblast growth factors, cytokines and chemokines to allow for higher survival rates of transplanted cells per treatment stage.
Types of Infusions: A combination therapy will be required for most brain injuries with the goal of increased recovery of any lost cognitive function Our cell delivery systems are very safe and administered via Stereotactic-guided delivery, inhalation via micro-nebulizer, Intravenous Drip and/or Intrathecally.
Rehabilitation Post-Treatment: Physical Rehabilitation therapy in Bangkok is optional depending on the patients travel/time constraints. Complete physical rehabilitation post-therapy and can be provided upon request for 2-4 hours per day and up to 5 days per week. Medical visas and extended stay accommodations for the patient and family can also be included upon request.
Costs Related to Treating Brain Injuries with Stem Cells & Physical Rehab
Our treatments protocol for Traumatic Brain Injuries will require a minimum of 14-21 nights in Bangkok. Due to the significant differences in brain injury treatment requests our neurological stem cell team will need to qualify the potential candidate for treatment. Upon approval, a detailed treatment plan will be provided that will includes the specifics of the treatment plan that will include: total number nights required along with the total medical related expenses including cell extraction,enrichment and infusions (excluding accommodations or flights). To begin the qualification process for the multi-stage TBI neural stem cell transplants, please prepare your recent medical records such as recent Brain MRI’s,CT Scan (Preferred) or PET Scans and contact us today.