Cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic syndromes and coronary artery disease are the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is estimated that the annual number of human deaths related to the cardiovascular disease is over 17.5 million worldwide, of which 80% of these deaths are due to strokes and heart attacks and over 75% of these incidents occur in developing nations. A recent project, by the (WHO) World Health Organization, monitored coronary heart disease across 37 ethnic populations in over 20 countries from all four continents. The study lasted over ten years and clearly shows that the annual rate of heart-related/coronary events is 600/100,000 people. The most common issue was ventricular dysfunction, followed by myocardial infarction. A diagnosis of MI means that a patient’s heart muscle rapidly lost its blood supply. Without immediate treatment of the blockage, the event will lead to permanent damage in the affected areas of the heart. Ischemic heart disease is also referred to as coronary thrombosis, which occurs due to formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessels of the heart.
What Causes Heart Attacks?
The most common causes of MI (Myocardial Infarction) and congestive heart failure is thrombosis or blood clots. These clots usually from inside one of the branches of the coronary artery. The clot restricts vital blood flow to the heart. This type of blood clotting doesn’t usually appear in healthy arteries unless there are existing atheromas within the arterial lining. Atheromas or plaque are fatty patches that develop in the linings of blood arteries. These types of plaque formations usually form over several years and can manifest more than one place inside the coronary arteries. Each Atheromas consists of an outer shell and soft inner core.
If a crack develops on the outer atheroma plaque shell, the event is known as a plaque rupture. This rupture exposes the inner core to circulating blood, which triggers the blood clotting mechanism resulting in a blood clot. A buildup of plaque is usually the underlying issue that leads to the death of heart muscle cells and a heart attack. It’s worth noting that atheromas can develop in any part of the coronary arteries. If caught early enough, anti-clogging medications can be used to safely break up the blood clot and eliminate the blockage before it too late.
Other causes of blocked arteries and heart attack causes include:
- Chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries
- Complications from open heart surgeries
- Reduce infarct size & reduction in scarring of heart muscles caused by cardiogenic shock
- A clot forming elsewhere then travels to the coronary artery and causes blockage
- Drug abuse can also cause a coronary artery to go into spasm
- Failed surgeries leading to the death of cardiac muscle
Symptoms of a Pending Heart Attack – Heart MI
The body displays several warnings leading up to a heart attack. The most common symptom is severe chest pain, but pain can also travel to the jaw area, along with the right or left arm (or both). Patients also report heavy sweating, feeling faint or sick. The pain experienced by patients is very similar to angina, but it’s usually much more severe and persists for longer. While angina usually disappears after a few minutes, Pain from a heart attack lasts anywhere from 10 minutes to several hours. Heart attack symptoms such as chest pain should be taken seriously and not ignored.
A small/minor heart attack can occur with or without pain (relatively mild) leading the victim to think it’s just lack of oxygen or heartburn. Significant or severe cardiac events can cause instant collapse, brain strokes, peripheral neuropathy, and result in sudden death. If addressed early after the initial incident, a lot of people can recover without further complications.
For some patients, an emergency angioplasty is required as an alternative to a ‘clot-busting’ medications. An angioplasty procedure uses tiny wires with a balloon attached to the end. The wire is guided into the large artery in the patient’s arm or groin area. The wire then travels up to the heart and directly into any blocked coronary artery using with the assistance of radio guidance. When it reaches the area of blockage, the balloon is inflated, allowing the blocked artery widen and thus breaking up any plaque formations.
Dangers of Silent Ischemia
Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction
Severe chest pain is a symptom but not the only test for patients to be aware of any pending damage to cardiac function. Proper clinical diagnosis of heart attacks requires physical exams and diagnostic tests from a trained cardiologist. Some commonly used tests for MI include Electrocardiogram (ECG), Echocardiogram, angiograms, nuclear stress test (heart Stress tests), CT coronary angiogram scan, Cardiac catheterization, and blood tests. The Heart Regeneration center also offers genetic screening to look for mutations in genes that might lead to heart disease or heart attacks using the following genetic markers:
TAZ,CAV3,CRYAB,CSRP3,TNNC1, TNNI3, JUP,DOLK, DES,VCL,MYL3, ACTC1, ACTN2,GAA, GLA,RBM20, RYR2, SCN5A, SGCD,TCAP, TMEM43, LAMP2,PRKAG2, RAF1,EYA4,ABCC9,DSC2 LMNA,MYBPC3,PKP2,PLN,DSG2, DSP,AGL,BAG3,TNNT2, TPM1,FHL1,EMD, MYH7, MYL2,HCN4,FKRP, FKTN, FLNC, TTN, TTR, SLC22A5,CTNNA3,LDB3,CACNA1C, ANKRD1, PDLIM3 and DMD.
Proactive Genetic screenings are recommended for family members of patients who may have had sudden cardiac events in the past. Early intervention is vital in managing any condition so direct relatives can use non-invasive DNA tests to see if they carry any gene mutations. Please note the Regeneration Center does not offer gene therapies to treat congenital heart disease, but there are currently several clinical trials underway to provide a cure for genetic heart diseases one day potentially. To help reduce any risk of heart attacks consider watching your weight, making dietary changes, and getting regular exercise to avoid osteoarthritis.
Stem Cells for Coronary Thrombosis
Cardiac Stem cell treatments (CSC’s) are the only safe and non-surgical method to improve ventricular muscle function after ischemic injury. Cardiac stem cell repair works by engrafting new cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, progenitor cells and cardiac pacemaker cells to the infarct zone (damaged area) which help to replace the (necrotic) dead myocardial tissue, induce arteriogenesis and help establish new blood microvessels through the process known as angiogenesis. Another issue that can occur due to heart attacks is Atrial fibrillation (AFib) or irregular heartbeats. AFib doesn’t directly cause a heart attack, and a heart attack causes atrial fibrillation or Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). If the coronary artery is damaged after an acute myocardial infarction, the lack of consistent blood flow can damage the atrial tissue resulting in fibrosis of the tissue, which leads to heart murmurs and uncoordinated heartbeats. If the heart pumps less effectively due to damage/fibrosis, it leads to a higher risk of strokes, periods of rapid heart rates, angina & atrial fibrillation.
Cardiac Myopathy – Angina vs. Heart Attack
The Regen Centre Treatment for Heart Attacks uses cultured and differentiated stem cells to restore lung and cardiac function via the revascularization process. The enhanced hematopoietic stem cells used in treatments for Congestive Heart Failure and coronary heart disease yield significantly larger populations of cardiomyocytes allowing for better long-term cardiovascular health and prevent lung, liver, or kidney failure.
1 Year After Stem Cell Treatment for Heart
The heart regeneration protocol for damaged myocardium treatment also focuses on the creation of both endothelial and vascular muscle cells that help increase blood supply needed for myocardial repair along with the paracrine effect. Cell development improves Paracrine signaling (cell-cell communication) which is critical in helping induce regenerative changes in surrounding progenitor cells and can be observed after cell infusions in (bFGF) fibroblast growth factors, (PDGF) platelet-derived growth factors, interleukin-1b & TGF-b and plays a vital immunomodulatory role in repairing heart tissue after heart attacks.
TREATMENT PRECAUTIONS & RISKSPlease note Stem Cell Therapies may not be appropriate for all Heart Conditions. Cell Therapies for Heart tissue repair are limited based on the extent of the heart muscle and tissue damage and current and accurate medical condition of the patient. Travel Restrictions may apply. Patients requiring sustained oxygen assistance will not qualify for treatment.
Coronary Arteriogenesis & Cardiopoietic Stem cell Therapy
Methods of delivery or adult cardiac myocytes to the damaged myocardium can be done in both surgical and noninvasive methods depending on the patient’s condition and needs. Minimally invasive means include catheter-based cell delivery, intracoronary transplantation, Intracoronary, or transendocardial injection; however, carry much more risk resulting in the need for concomitant open heart surgery. Through proper cell culturing, Cell Isolation, G-CSF and cell differentiation techniques, non-invasive, non-surgical cell delivery can be achieved using then the combination of intravenous and intramuscular cell infusions needed to circumvent dead heart muscle. Learn more about the basics of stem cells.
Heart Regeneration Therapy Guidelines – 2023
The number of Cardiopoietic Stem cells needed will vary based on patient needs. Severe cases with multiple commodities may require a multiple stage delivery using transvascular injections with direct injection Into the ventricular walls to ensure optimal results.
Repair Damaged Heart Muscles w/ Stem Cells
The ultimate goal of our cellular transplantation after heart attacks is to first stop the progression of the disease and the regeneration of any lost heart muscle. The overall success of any treatment for heart attack or heart valve regeneration is measured 3-5 months after therapy using updated tests. The total number of cells needed for maximal efficacy will depend on several factors, including the patients’ current health and age of the injury. Please note Cardiac regeneration after heart attacks is not a 1-day process and require multiple stages over 2-3 weeks. Due to the varying degrees of severity, our medical team will need to review the patient’s current and historical condition before acceptance. For eligible patients, a complete treatment plan shall be provided with specifics of the protocol along with the fixed medical costs of treating heart attacks with stem cells. To begin a medical evaluation, please prepare recent test results from an EKG, Tilt Table Heart CT Scan, Echocardiogram, SPECT exam (Single-photon emission computed tomography) and contact us today.
Physical Rehabilitation Post Heart MI Therapy: Rehabilitation therapy is optional based on the patients time constraints. Full rehabilitation and nursing care can be provided 1-6 hours per day and up to 5 days per week
. Medical visas and accommodations for the patient and family/friends at an extended stay hotel can also be included upon request. Estimated treatment length is 14 – 21 days in total.
Published Clinical Citations
 ^ Srimahachota, Suphot, Smonporn Boonyaratavej, Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat, Somjai Wangsupachart, Monravee Tumkosit, Udomsak Bunworasate, Thayapong Na Nakorn, et al. 2011. Intra-coronary bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled study. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand Chotmaihet thangphaet, no. 6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21696072
 ^ Hou, Jingying, Lingyun Wang, Jieyu Jiang, Changqing Zhou, Tianzhu Guo, Shaoxin Zheng, and Tong Wang. 2013. Cardiac stem cells and their roles in MI. Stem cell reviews and reports, no. 3. doi:10.1007/s12015-012-9421-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23238707
 ^ Limsuwan, Alisa, Pavit Pienvichit, Thosaphol Limpijankit, Pongsak Khowsathit, Suradej Hongeng, Ratanaporn Pornkul, Suvipaporn Siripornpitak, and Sarana Boonbaichaiyapruk. 2010. Transcoronary bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in a child with myocardial infarction: first pediatric experience. Thailand Clinical cardiology, no. 8. doi:10.1002/clc.20463. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20632394
 ^ Carvalho, Edmund, Paul Verma, Kerry Hourigan, and Rinti Banerjee. 2015. Myocardial infarction: stem cell transplantation for cardiac regeneration. Regenerative medicine, no. 8 (November 13). doi:10.2217/rme.15.63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26563414
 ^ Boonbaichaiyapruck, Sarana, Pavit Pienvichit, Thosapol Limpijarnkij, Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat, Apichai Pongpatananurak, Ratchanee Saelee, Artit Ungkanont, and Suradej Hongeng. 2010. Transcoronary infusion of bone marrow derived multipotent stem cells to preserve left ventricular geometry and function after myocardial infarction. Clinical cardiology, no. 7. doi:10.1002/clc.20545. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552656
 ^ Nartprayut, Kuneerat, Yaowalak U-Pratya, Pakpoom Kheolamai, Sirikul Manochantr, Methichit Chayosumrit, Surapol Issaragrisil, and Aungkura Supokawej. 2013. Cardiomyocyte differentiation of perinatally‑derived mesenchymal stem cells. Molecular medicine reports Thailand, no. 5 (March 4). doi:10.3892/mmr.2013.1356. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23467912