Chromosomes are the building block of all life. A Chromosome basically carries all of the vital information needed for our bodies to be able to grow cells,reproduce and survive. Chromosomes that contains DNA, as well as some regulatory proteins. Chromosomes are normally found in the nuclei of cells. 
What Are Chromosomes?
There are 46 chromosomes in the human body or about 23 pairs of chromosome. In the case of other organisms such as a small Peas there are 12 chromosomes. Dogs have 78 chromosomes. This number is really not related to the complexity,size or intelligence of a particular species.
Females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have one X and one The “Y” Chromosome. Scientists count individual strands of chromosomes. Chromosomes are made up of DNA.
The sex chromosomes are the X chromosome and the The “Y” Chromosome Chromatin is the unit of measurement for chromosomes. chromatin count helps displays the structure of chromosomes but isn’t unique to any particular type of chromosome..
The vast majority of chromosomal abnormalities involve the sex chromosomes XX and XY. Much more so than other types of autosomal abnormalities. Entire commercial industries are based on genetics and evolution of these changes. Sex chromosome abnormalities are gender specific. XX chromosomes are markers for females and XY chromosomes are the markers for men. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division and differentiation.
It’s crucial that our reproductive ancestor cells (eggs and sperm haploids), contain the exact number of chromosomes and these chromosomes must also have the proper construction.  Haploid cells are created via meiosis which is the opposite of mitosis. Chromosomal disorders are currently not treatable using stem cells and require gene therapies.
Published Clinical Citations
 ^ Y. Pirson, Recent advances in the clinical management of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 89, Issue 11, November 1996, Pages 803–806, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/89.11.803
 ^ W. Reardon, C.F. O Mahoney, R. Trembath, H. Jan, P.D. Phelps, Enlarged vestibular aqueduct: a radiological marker of Pendred syndrome, and mutation of the PDS gene, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 93, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 99–104, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/93.2.99
 ^ W.D. FOULKES, A tale of four syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis, Gardner syndrome, attenuated APC and Turcot syndrome, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 88, Issue 12, December 1995, Pages 853–863, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.qjmed.a069018