Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor G-CSF Stimulation

Stem Cell Regeneration Center Glossary

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is also known as colony-stimulating factor 3,G-CSF, GCSF, GM-CSF or Rm-GSF.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factors are a special kind of protein or “growth factor” that the body naturally manufactures in the bone marrow that is often used in cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and NK Cell Therapy.

Creating White Blood Cells

G-CSF’s have the ability to promote bone marrow stimulation for it to produce white blood cells “WBC” by increasing its numbers within a short span of time. There are three main types of G-CSF including:

  • Filgrastim
  • Pegylated filgrastim
  • Lenograstim.

The side effects of Chemotherapy greatly compromises a humans health in the sense that the radiation significantly lowers our bodies defense mechanism thanks to the reduction in neutropenia or White Blood Count leading to the decreased resistance to viruses and infections. This is where the G-CSF comes into play, as it can be used to increase the total WBC count. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factors are also sometimes used before autologous stem cell therapy that requires use of Bone marrow cells or stem cells from the peripheral blood.


When you undergo chemotherapy, the reduction in white blood cell is usually temporary during treatment, and often normalizes naturally before each round of chemotherapy. However, for some patients with severely compromised health, the succeeding dosage of chemo must be reduced or postponed if the if the G-CSF count does not recover as it may put the patient at additional risk.

G-CSF Stimulation use in Stem Cell Therapies

Given this predicament, the G-CSF encourages the production of more WBC and eventually increases your resistance to infection. However, it does not necessarily mean that every chemotherapy session needs G-CSF integration. If patients are recovering naturally and are able to produce enough white blood cells, then G-CSF stimulation will not be needed.

Speed Up Production of Stem Cells

In cases of chemotherapy requiring high dosages, G-CSF will have to be incorporated to stimulate the production of bone marrow and the eventual production of stem cells. The Regeneration Center of Thailand uses G-CSF stimulation in some treatment protocols to allow stem cell populations to be produced rapidly via the bone marrow, collected, and then banked to be eventually used in a treatment.


G-CSF is generally administered subcutaneously via injection usually several days before stem cell transplants or several days after chemotherapy. It is supposed to be dispensed on a daily basis, but the number of injections would really depend upon the patients condition and the type of G-CSF used. For instance, in the case of pegylated filgrastim, since this can stay in the body for a longer period, it can be administered only once after every chemotherapy cycle.

Side Effects & Risks of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating

Since our body is a natural producer of G-CSF, when injected, the amount of circulating G-CSF typically goes above the normal ranges found. Some of the side effects noted with G-CSF Stimulation are dull pain or discomfort in the bony areas such as the extremities, pelvis, and back. Other symptoms include skin itchiness,fevers, chills, and edema or fluid retention. These effects are usually temporary and disappear after a few days.

To learn more about our G-CSF and its use in our treatment protocols please contact us today.